We sponsored 19 males runners to try 16 frames of jogging shoes on very busy metropolis streets and relaxed snow-covered roads. Their help, we all determined its Mizuno innovation owner 21 is a good pair of simple jogging shoes for guys. The decades-old type is definitely effective for signing day-to-day stretches, with a sole that offers well padding and return, and an upper that’s loyal and capable. If a typical natural dress is definitelyn’t your part, don’t worry: Most of us have also choices for runners that opt for security or low-drop athletic shoes.
The best pick
All of our testers enjoyed the Mizuno tide cyclist 21 for everyday, under-an-hour goes or logging easy-effort kilometers. The rise motorcyclist 21 comes with a supportive-yet-breathable interlock high and a cushioned one that still helps a responsive, bouncy tease. Numerous testers cited that rise driver 21 find fairly harsh to their paws, so there has also been some controversy about if its in good shape was going to be actual to dimension, specifically in the width, but this isn’t adequate to rap this useful horse right out the greatest point.
If the Mizuno is out of stock in your size or you prefer lighter, less pillowy running shoes, the Under Armour Charged Bandit 3 is an excellent choice. Testers raved with this model’s true-to-size compliment, easy knit superior, and sprightly experience. One canopy defined it as “a hard all-arounder” and his—and many’—only sincere quibble was basically which area is definitelyn’t super-plush; joggers who choose many more padding underfoot are more pleased with his top pick.
As well great
In the event you’re selecting a steadiness athletic shoes that moderates pronation, we advice the Asics GT-2000 6. The GT-2000 offers a well-padded follow and a softly padded forefoot gives sufficient supporting and outstanding recoil. The top hugs the support very “with no slippage, no pressure spots on arches,” under one examiner. The healthy applies to propertyalso, with a toe system that is “quite big, in a simple way,” as stated in another.
The Altra Escalante 1.5 is an excellent variety inside’re a jogger who desires a “barefoot-but-not” touch while walking. This model’s adaptable important is without heel-to-toe change, therefore this has a totally grade bottom, as well as its flexible, woven-knit high features a wider-than-most foot parcel, as long as enough for foot to shrink and circulate naturally. Testers recognized the Escalante 1.5 (as well as the authentic Escalante earlier) that they are both digestible and protective, with plenty of cushioning to ones own paws although not such its shoes got truly in the way regarding advancement. However, people who wish better padded back and better huge superior should look to our very own best buy or runner-up.
Why you should trust us
For this article and your women’s athletic shoes instruction, my testers held 4,094 complete mls, and is comparable to the going range from city, georgia, to New York City to city, Oregon—all towns via each of our testers emptied. For any men’s suggestions, 19 men lined roughly 1,900 far—equal to virtually 100 stretches per examiner.
I also spoke with five gurus to get their does what matters (and just what doesn’t) in running footwear designing and the ways to find the best footwear for one:
My started out with anthony McDannald, DPM, a podiatrist, running educate, and Wirecutter contributing factor, based in Montreal.
I simply talked with Melanie kÃÂ¶nnte, an old running-shoe saleswoman and modern NYC-based linear drive. Their near-encyclopedic comprehension of every brand name and virtually every shoe supplied ended up being helpful in winnowing a truly large number into a testable subject of top footwear.
My transmission with Paul Langer, DPM, a podiatrist at siamese Cities Orthopedics and part owner of a running shoe stock, fast The foot Minneapolis, served to I do sound right of modern study about running shoes could affect (or don’t involve) runners’ conservation and accidental injury prices.
From Jolan Browne, DPT, top natural therapist at NYU’s Running Lab at NYU Langone Orthopedic concentrate, you discovered foundation strike—heel against midfoot against forefoot—and the biomechanics of running.
Last, I simply chatted with fantastic Harper, co-founder of Altra Running. Harper’s loved ones was at the athletic shoes enterprise, so she initiated deconstructing shoes at a young age. As any, this individual made a shoe with minimal end buffering for herself and the neighbors (they said this sneaker feel on-commercial and easy). That boot converted into the shoe business Altra, which concentrates on no-drop footwear (VF institution, the Utah-based firm that possess northern appearance and Timberland, freshly obtained Altra for an undisclosed quantity). Our testers had no exposure to Harper during the rendering on this guide—they chose the Altra Escalante like the most effective low-drop coach independently.
In addition pored on the pre-existing methodical studies about athletic shoes and problems, utilizing assistance from Wirecutter’s skill editor in chief, Leigh Krietsch Boerner. And I also interpret lots of articles and reviews about means athletic shoes, including stories from Runner’s Entire World, Wired, and The New York Times (father or mother firm of Wirecutter).
As for us, I’ve drafted a lot of fitness-related publications for Wirecutter. I’m too an operating mentor with qualification from emplea Track and Field plus the route Runners team of America, and I’m a regionally reasonably competitive traveler. I don’t put on men’s boots, though, and so I sponsored my own coworker Chris Heinonen towards setup the checking due to this guide. John is usually 6 ankle 3 and don a size 12½ running footwear. She going moving after higher education as he “was highly overweight;” 15 years in the future, he or she races many methods from the distance to the convention. This guy hype that conducting in metropolis, Oregon, the place she or he tech-lives, “is a books usually travel by—or still raceway!—people which can be Olympic or World defenders.”
Whom this is exactly for
This manual is designed for the 17 million residents who managed journey racing in 2016 (per conducting emplea), in addition to the large numbers a lot more whom execute for entertainment or competence without fighting.
A good pair of shoes constructs the cornerstone for a worthwhile pastime, nevertheless wrong boots could cause sore spots, harmed toenails, or bad. We all certain the footwear in this manual since’re more variable methods joggers regarding qualities and desires. These footwear can be a recreational runner’s only arrange, or they may be a good all-around selection for cut-throat sports athletes who want a shoe for convenient or recovery costs. Some runners wouldn’t detect these footwear to cushioned adequate for very long runs or compact adequate for rushing or rush workplace. (That doesn’t entail that they won’t benefit either or both, though—many individuals testers fortunately employed these footwear for both make training and convention instruction).
People that walk for personal training ought to be very happy with these selects. Gym-goers, but certainly won’t discover these shoes useful: Weightlifters and cross-trainers will look for trainers with accent bottoms or inferior side-to-side reliability (for fast transforming instruction), severally.
For this purpose guide, we do not try place with an increase of unique products (like for example particularly light, highly padded, or really stabilizing) as those will add around the run and so are, in all probability, pointless for most people. We’ll show up some love to these extra classifications soon as features towards the present leader.
The way we picked
Our 1st view of accessible running shoes render roughly 90 pairs, therefore we patronized each of our specialists for information concerning how to slim that record. Why not people eroded user reviews from Runner’s Populace, Conducting Heels Legend, Challenger Run, and RunRepeat, as well as Amazon’s patrons.
Many of us looked-for shoe identified as staying both padded and responsive (might, a “rebound” result). Often both these elements have likelihoods with one another: special cushioning may well assimilate defining each jogging advancement. Shoes or boots that secure both contains detected my aid. Whenever possible, most people erred toward light-weight units, though our experts noticed that shoes are gaining less and less across the board. Routinely, the majority jogging shoes accept a sole that’s 10 mm to 12 mm coarse at back than your forefoot. Much of the shoes most of us continued the list in good shape that kind, but because some runners want inferior list cushioning and a flatter single, we both made certain to hold several options with less with zero heel-to-toe losealso.
Worth and is so important, and we crowned this chooses at $140—pay anymore than that and anyone’re getting in horseshoe intended for niche usage. Your finalized show contain 16 shoes from 13 organizations: 12 “neutral” designs (three that have heel-to-toe drops of 5 mm or lower), and four “stability” ones.
How you tested
we all required each token_sinlow_type on our show in triplicate:
- Chelsea tried using one pair of each dress kind in dimension 12½ (or perhaps in a 13, if a 12½ appeared to ben’t on the market), walking generally in most regarding for no less than a distance.
- He employed three equally measured individual joggers give for and go over every one of the sneakers. They evaluated match and ease and comfort immediately, consequently acquired moobs or two of boots environment for function assessment.
- We and enrolled 16 individual athletes elderly 21 to 59 to run in horseshoe. Many of these testers flow with two amateur walking competitors: staff Green Lizard in Metropolis, Oregon, and The Hellgate Road Joggers in Astoria, Colony. Each specialist ran least 15 distance in each footwear for women, many does even more than that, by using the per-pair intermediate becoming about 50 points—no slackers in this article!
Most of the best testers are competitive joggers. This meant they may cause his broad experiences to the examination of the sneakers. Always, all of us told these people that the boots might possibly be suggested for all athletes, as opposed to for individual desired goals.
Our new testers ranked the footwear 3 x: upon number 1 applying these products on, after catastrophe go, including the end of the 5 time. We regarded:
Cushioning: A shoe’s capacity imbibe or yield effects was critical. Some of us questioned testers to rank each amount of support together with the excellence in each token_sinlow_type they will considered.
Responsiveness: many of us specified responsiveness as “a boards effect pushing one whenever go.” All of our testers regarded both exactly how much he look this reaction incase he suched as exactly what they felt.
Mount: the best specialists informed usa that whenever you may’re donning just running shoes, your own stride should appear uncomplicated. We both required testers to rank the “ride” was horseshoe while keeping this notion notion.
Reason find: jogging shoes really need to cover the feet from reason. Nonetheless, you have to be placement appear some irregularities underfootalso, so you can micro-correct rather than device an ankle.
Sneaker healthy: Testers regarded as the span, width, and entire in shape of their shoe modified progressively, to ascertain if there’s a break-in time period and exactly how long this held up.
Single and upper hold: a very good athletic shoes should back a runner’s whole entire pick without restriction, pressure spots, or chafing. It ought ton’t feel very silky or as well toned underfoot, often. To get at that key factor of compliment and comfortableness, testers ended up requested to speed each top plus the solitary underfoot separately.
Body fat: Some of us taken into account exactly how much the shoes acessed when you specified the investigation billiards (most people avoided purchasing superheavy sneakers), but various on a proportion declares to solely part of the fib—testers as well thought of the personal “heaviness” associated with the shoe on the extremities.
Dash: Type: lots of runners care if their particular case glance attractive, and we inquired testers to aid their sentiments on overall look.
After flowing 15 far, all of our testers done valuable reviews, good and bad, about their complete things linear in footwear. People explained to usa whether or not they would carry on using the footwear.
Just where most people tested
Our testers rammed roughly 1,800 far of concrete in almost every likely sail condition—from the wasteland climes of LV, within the direct sun light and heat of Fl, on the intolerable wintry associated with wintery Northeast, around the water and wind associated with the Pacific Northwest. The athletes traversed typically path nonetheless they in addition intermittently popularized rock road, cinder trails, snow and frost, and—given a assessment would be executed in December—treadmill straps.
Our personal select: Mizuno rise Rider 21
our new pick
The Mizuno tide participant 21 acquired our personal testers’ body for the very best go-to footwear due to its you lots of support and influence. The curl traveler 21’s 12 mm change singular particularly endured out, with well over one examiner remarking upon it becoming “plenty supportive” with a sprightly travel. Another tester wrote: “The plant was [tide driver 21] provides quite a bit of support and can handle your simple, sensibly higher condescending quite well.”
Nearly all of this testers harmonized your net greater associated with the Wave participant 21 fit snugly, grasping testers’ pumps squarely set up—this is a superb aspectbecause slippage here is a very common purpose sore spots. A few testers commentated about the curl participant 21 sense less wide than many other boots, most were satisfied with the accommodate and level of comfort. (inside sneaker can do touch limit outloud, possible ordering that in broad versus a consistent.) One tester thought he or she cover no pressure points anyway parking a little vast toes with these shoes (he’d encountered pressure spots through the other case this individual tried now). Testers complimented the breathability of interlock as well shoe’s in general “solid” assembly, too, finding that required that it is resilient and sturdy. (We’ll trail where this case, causing all of our personal selections, fare during the coming many months of enduring screening.)
Referee from Runner’s Reality like the tide motorcyclist 21, proclaiming, “This sneaker had testers fighting to flag out just one single great thing since they really acclaimed this pump whole.” It also acquired a 90/100 review on RunRepeat, which emphasized the shoe’s support, supporting, responsiveness, and ease.
The revolution cyclist 21 arrives six colours plus in men’s Usa sizes 7 to 16. The footwear are available in both steady and huge widths, though don’t assume all colors include extended. Truly the only difference between the men’s and women’s roll owner can be its size, so people that wear size 10 (men’s) or small can also decide on the coloration and widths for the women’s choices.
Disorders yet not dealbreakers
The priority voiced by multiple testers was ever in good shape. Indeed, we discovered that Mizuno has a somewhat unlike EU to our company conversion process than make numerous other shoemakers; his individuals sizes travel quite small-scale. Although one examiner stated the shoes be narrow, another required spike these individuals close since he decided they certainly were way too wide— complete, we both accrued no existent consensus on sneaker width, beyond to share with one to try the dress article 21 on before you make an acquisition.
This pump always felt harsh to a couple of testers. One mentioned, “The shoe was really practically total oz . easier versus alternative footwear my spouse and I screened, nevertheless it find heavier inside offer additionally, on this foot… book it has to make aided by the proportion associated with the sneaker simply being a little inclined in the direction of the part.” Another specialist that too recognized a heaviness blogged, nevertheless, that he “wouldn’t give the ride and buffer for missing an ounce given the way in which easy they’re exercising in.”
Runner-up: Under armor hot Bandit 3
The Under Armour Charged Bandit 3 got especially great marks for meet, as a result of her easy, considerably flexible bottom package and also the contoured follow shape that holds the foundation nicely installed. “With some other shoe, you’ll be able to find a base basically colliding aided by the greater whenever you get, tread on a ledge, and take a tough step on a treadmill, but this shoe practically decided part of this ft,” published one examiner. Although looks aren’t all of it, testers thinking this model’s fixed heather knit high appeared to be among the most pretty of any shoes people checked. Additionally loved this 8 mm decline shoe’s easy, “lively” tease and light weight.
Runner’s Earth buyers are furthermore buffs systems paying Bandit 3, labeling that a “moderately soft-shoe that supports for simple jogs even so is clever adequate for quickness exercise routines, too” and giving you a call that it a most readily useful have for its less-than-$100 cost. Its very own described a superb 95/100 on RunRepeat and have been a Competitor Running select in 10 better of pin 2017, too.
Claims on the Charged Bandit 3 sneakers’ tend buffering, however, directed those to all of our number-two identify. What’s a lot more, testers noticed a “muted” earth touch, that had been a little bit shocking because of the sole’s thinner-than-many profile. Testers moreover lifted inquiries that sneakers’ pretty polish one might shed pull on slick areas (no-one fallen in your testing, though).
The Under equip hot Bandit 3 is offered in six appearance and an outstanding coat selection 7 to 16, plus three widths (liquid, greater, and extra greater), though colours within greater widths can be modified. Like our very own premium choice, this token_sinlow_type site design can be unisex, so gentlemen with slimmer foot kinds of 10½ and smaller will take facts about the eight women’s sizesalso.
Too fantastic: Asics GT-2000 6
Must’re finding a trustworthiness token_sinlow_type, I encourage the Asics GT-2000 6. My testers afforded this pump an encompassing thumbs-up mostly because of her excessive ease and comfort; there are a padded hit neckband and soft but helpful 10 mm move out sole. One canopy generally sports orthotics but found a good run-in the Asics even without their particular insoles, remarking how great these experience as well as on the fluidity associated with the heel-to-toe switch. Main, his / her arches didn’t suffer following your execute. Another canopy presented the GT-2000 pair’s “noticeably bouncy” be and right protection on sidewalk.
Testers well awarded camera because of its true-to-size go. “The digital corner looks like fairly spacious, in an effective way, and the bottom relaxes beautifully at once again for the pump,” one traveler stated. Another agreed about the conventional width be “right” to it.
The 6th form of this horseshoe was launched alone briefly before our very own test, generally there weren’t countless tips consider. (The 5th model was well-liked, which urged our company to pick the newer variation for our verify). Ladies specialist at starting Footwear master brought new variation 6 four with five stars, contacting that it a “quality tool of a shoe that provides solid reinforcement and primary pleasure for quite a few distance.” May seem benefit north america.
Even though Asics GT-2000 didn’t spirit as dense and plodding like the another steadiness shoes we analyzed, things’s however never excellent boot for tempo do work or events. One examiner idea definitely a greatly for fitness treadmill run. Another tester believed, “it’s certainly not a racing footwear for my situationsince isn’t easy good enough for short point, nor sturdy adequate for too long competitions.”
The Asics GT-2000 6 is men’s me sizes 6 to 15 in usual width within provide greater and extra-wide widths various influence blends.
Well capital: Altra Escalante 1.5
Photo: Wife Kobos
If you want a shoe with no heel-to-toe drop, the Altra Escalante 1.5, the updated model of our previous recommendation, is our pick. The function testers—chosen mainly because they’d explained starting in humble- and no-drop footwear opportunities—loved the Escalante 1.5, plus the traditional Escalante previously, because his or her spacious accommodate and versatile lone allow foot advancement logically, with little to no interference under base. Just like all Altras, the Escalante footwear is not the same as a large number of some people tested having had an entirely ranking shoe bottom, making them “no drop” (definition there’s no difference in the sole’s consistency beneath part against in the toe, a design element that’s designed to induce a midfoot, instead of bottom, attaining pattern). The buffering that individuals preferred in the 1st model is actually unmodified from inside the second, with one canopy remarking: “The padding is actually amazingly successful … you feel as a whole control over your own tread.”
The Escalante (like all Altra shoes) works loosely in toed pack, though the pull pucker from 1.5 model’s uppers embrace the bottom directly, an improvement over the non-stretch cloth most people watch in just last year’s type, which look very loose in contrast. As stated in Altra’s site, a roomy digit corner is meant to accommodate motion through advancement, building chafing, nail bruising, and forefoot sore spots extremely not likely. “At no point performed I feel like there seemed to be any press or massaging over at my paws, which can be fantastic,” authored one mesurer.
All of your testers primarily experience the footwear ran somewhat ample, so you might want to pick out ones volume supported sneaker distance, not really width, especially if you’re every so often between sizes. You’ll unquestionably consider these on prior to purchasing, too. Addionally, any time you’re always the larger end of a neutral case, make sure you simplicity into a no-drop horseshoe within overstressing all of your calves.
The best testers aren’t one info whom appreciated this boot. The initial interpretation was basically a Runner’s Domain Editor’s decision for their “responsive, go-fast star in instructional,” saying the “midsole orthopedic features because springy like it grows.” Model variety gain additional honors for “the cozy and smooth easily the heel” and a “360-degree reflective clean [that] helps with visibility” in evening or sunless criteria. RunRepeat’s summary of the most important Escalante bought that a 95/100 and rated that through the lead three of the running shoe positions for its “optimal padding,” light look, and simple plan. As stated in one product user on RunRepeat, the Escalante “managed to convert numerous enthusiasts of additional labels to Altra.” So long as you’re thinking about a no-drop horseshoe, establish these a try-on.
The men’s Escalante offered sizes 7 to 15. As Altra artwork his women’s shoes in different ways, people can’t allege definitively if smaller-footed boys is pleased with a women’s Escalante.
(Most people interviewed senior Harper, co-founder of Altra, as aspect of your homework practice correctly direct. But all of our testers did not have experience of Harper via gaining of your guide—they chose the Altra Escalante 1.5 given that the greatest low-drop fitness instructor independently.)
The Adidas Supernova seemed to be about the high prefer or runner-up, nevertheless required a slimmer equip and required more to-break in than many of the horseshoe people certified. After the shoes are broken-in, however, testers acknowledged the Supernova’s supportive, soft, 10 mm heel-to-toe-drop buffering as well as its receptive continue. Even, many of us struck these to the competitors division basically, very, this examiner reported things most effective: “These trainers tell myself to of a fluffy pacifier on a bed. You assail in it, appreciate the soft qualities to start with, but you understand that it is usually excessively.”
Many testers loved the Brooks Ghost 10 because of its cozy go and feel right away. Indeed, that it’s all of our women’s peak find running shoe. But countless mens testers experience that your model’s plushness have been an excessive amount of great. “my wanted how much cash cushioning they had, but it is at the trouble of any real highway believe,” one canopy typed. “They assimilated all the traumatize of hitting the anchor, but didn’t bid any responsiveness.” And that appeared to ben’t commitment people absorbed: One tester stated this task only took his own pair beyond 1 day to completely dry after a rainy night operate.
The Skechers GoRun tease 7 have been fashionable, and they have an easy higher and abundant support as part of the 6 mm lose feet. Always, this males testers discover this case to be excessively strong. One specialist suggested the man admired the GoRun Ride 7 straightforward performs but not travel work or competitions.
The Reebok tranquility path segregated our very own testers. Some acknowledged the particular “perfect” accommodate, ultra-pillowy underlay, and astoundingly bouncing believe; other individuals screamed about insufficient crushed spirit and a clunky ride. “It decided i used to be slapping the bottom with each 12 inches touch,” one canopy said. The consistency journey well confused specifics for type. Of note: After this examining time frame stopped, Reebok published one minute model of the pump, which willn’t could be seen as significant differ from this. All the same, we’ll record that for possible future news.
The New Balance 880v7 obtained warm reviews from testers, just who always “neither admired nor detested” these. Some awarded the snug look of sound absorbing maximum while others thought the footwear miss reversal and cover rigid. One mesurer was going to be fewer equivocating: “They decided track with coconuts in your legs. I’d want to observe how these suffice with 100 far on them. Potentially heading alleviate prepared?”
The Nike oxygen soar Pegasus 34 find inflexible immediately additionally, on the road. “They had taken forever to split in, but after 60 far they be nice,” suggested one (clear specialized) examiner. Various testers acclaimed the shoe’s 10 mm sink single for their skinnier biography and clean spirit, but others reported about the absence of plushness.
The On Cloudflow can be a got tastes. The initial type of this shoe’s 7 mm decline single thrilled testers exactly who craved a rebound feeling while moving, but more testers experience that it bounce came out in the inauspicious forfeit of any cushioning. Summarized one, “Midway through the operatesince i obtained alot more tired, my spouse and I initiated observing the rally far less while the decreased padding alot more,” one specialist claimed.
The Nike gas zoom capacity Structure 21 offered our personal stability case select (the Asics GT-2000 6) a streak for its dollars. By and large, testers liked the focus construction 21 shoe’ solid, open experience and improved primed. And also they applauded proper padding associated with 10 mm dip shoe bottom. But these were done of contention owing observations about a disconnected journey. “where the walk hit the roadway, is actually finished all my very own strength and have been like linear in disables,” claimed one specialist.
The Brooks Adrenaline GTS 18 possesses a 12 mm spend and it is padded. It’s both really dependable and alternatively reactive. Doing, however, is within the suit, which was volatile across sizes and widths. One examiner directed a large product but search it wasn’t vast enough. Another got a standard-width release but find the footwear used to be strangely relax, that he cured by putting on larger socks. One third mesurer stated he’d to hassle with the laces too much to obtain trainers comfy plenty.
Testers appreciated the New Balance 860v8 model’s cozy, nice upper material along with firmly padded, 10 mm drop out sole. The serviceman said the sneaker cover firm and loyal not far too stiff within their foot. But this shoe just isn’t as all-around as a number of the other people we all proven: One mesurer known that missed the structure and cushion he’d opt for longer runs. The 860v8 furthermore experienced some compliment problems, with a wide-footed canopy proclaiming that their foot think populated even in the greater width.
The Hoka one-one Clifton 4 gave a tighter go than his robustly padded looks anticipated. Testers are thrilled by where lightweight the Hokas be however always celebrated not enough responsiveness within the 5 mm dip, rocker-shaped sole. One challenged the fit, that he learn as well tiny during the hit and far too large within the bottom.
Our new testers go ahead and weren’t wowed through Topo Fli-Lyte 2, detailing the extensive hit container as “awkward” and “hard on my foot.” The firm 3 mm go area has becomen’t extremely plush and no some was going to be shocked by using the responsiveness. “After conducting within these, that it forced me to understand that I like a shoe that floods since continue. I couldn’t [find a stride] once I used these,” one tester said.
Exactly what to get excited to
In the near future, we hope to find lightweight machines for race car, many more very much padded styles anymore and retrieval is, and “smart” case with microchips and programs that document and look at the wearer’s biomechanics.
Jim McDannald, DPM, podiatrist, running coach, and Wirecutter contributor in Montreal, lg optimus one p500 android handset question, November 28, 2017
Melanie vermag, conducting teacher in ny, in-person meeting, september 1, 2017
Paul Langer, DPM, podiatrist at parallel locations Orthopedics and part owner of running shoe save fast arches Minneapolis, prepaid phone consultation, August 23, 2018
Jolan Browne, DPT, senior physical therapist at NYU’s Running Lab at NYU Langone Orthopedic Center, phone interview, June 24, 2018
Gold Harper, co-founder of Altra Running, cell appointment, february 21, 2017